Schedule 1 – RISK OF SECURITIES TRADING
1. The prices of securities fluctuate, sometimes dramatically. The price of a security may move up or down, and may become valueless. It is as likely that losses will be incurred rather than profit made as a result of buying and selling securities.
2. Any representation of past performance is not necessarily a guide to future performance.
3. Where investments involve exposure to foreign currencies, changes in rates of exchange may cause the value of the investments to fluctuate up or down.
4. Investments in emerging markets need careful and independent assessment by you of each investment and the risks (including without limitation sovereign risk, issuer risk, price risk, liquidity risk, legal and tax risks). Further, you should be aware that, while such investments can yield high gains, they can also be highly risky as the markets are unpredictable and there may be inadequate regulations and safeguards available to investors.
5. YSHK is entitled to act upon your instructions and you cannot assume that YSHK will warn you if your instructions are ill-timed or inadvisable for any reason or if the instructions are likely to cause you loss.
6. Before you make any investment, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.
Schedule 2 – RISK OF MARGIN TRADING
The risk of loss in financing a transaction by deposit of collateral is significant. You may sustain losses in excess of your cash and any other assets deposited as collateral with YSHK. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute contingent orders, such as ‘stop-loss’ or “stop-limit” orders. You may be called upon at short notice to make additional margin deposits or interest payments. If the required margin deposits or interest payments are not made within the prescribed time, your collateral may be liquidated without your consent. You should closely monitor your positions, as in some market conditions we may be unable to contact you or provide you with sufficient time to make the required deposits, and forced liquidation may be necessary. Moreover, you will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account and interest charged on your account. You should therefore carefully consider whether such a financing arrangement is suitable in light of your own financial position and investment objectives.
Schedule 3 – RISKS OF PROVIDING AN AUTHORITY TO REPLEDGE YOUR SECURITIES COLLATERAL
There is risk if you provide YSHK with an authority that allows YSHK to apply your securities or securities collateral pursuant to a securities borrowing and lending agreement, repledge your securities collateral for financial accommodation or deposit your securities collateral as collateral for the discharge and satisfaction of YSHK’s settlement obligations and liabilities.
If your securities or securities collateral are received or held by YSHK in Hong Kong, the above arrangement is allowed only if you consent in writing. Moreover, unless you are a professional investor, your authority must specify the period for which it is current and be limited to not more than 12 months. If you are a professional investor, these restrictions do not apply.
Additionally, your authority may be deemed to be renewed (i.e. without your written consent) if YSHK issues you a reminder at least 14 days prior to the expiry of the authority, and you do not object to such deemed renewal before the expiry date of your then existing authority.
You are not required by any law to sign these authorities. But an authority may be required by YSHK, for example, to facilitate margin lending to you or to allow your securities or securities collateral to be lent to or deposited as collateral with third parties. YSHK should explain to you the purposes for which one of these authorities is to be used.
If you sign one of these authorities and your securities or securities collateral are lent to or deposited with third parties, those third parties will have a lien or charge on your securities or securities collateral. Although YSHK is responsible to you for securities or securities collateral lent or deposited under your authority, a default by it could result in the loss of your securities or securities collateral.
A securities cash account not involving securities borrowing and lending is available from YSHK. If you do not require margin facilities or do not wish your securities or securities collateral to be lent or pledged, you should not sign the above authorities and ask to open this type of securities cash account.
Schedule 4 – RISKS OF TRADING GROWTH ENTERPRISE MARKET STOCKS
Growth Enterprise Market (“GEM”) stocks involve a high investment risk. In particular, companies may list on GEM with neither a track record of profitability nor any obligation to forecast future profitability. GEM stocks may be very volatile and illiquid. You should make the decision to invest only after due and careful consideration. The greater risk profile and other characteristics of GEM mean that it is a market more suited to professional and other sophisticated investors.
Current information on GEM stocks may only be found on the internet website operated by the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited. GEM Companies are usually not required to issue paid announcements in gazetted newspapers.
You should seek independent professional advice if you are uncertain of or have not understood any aspect of this risk disclosure statement or the nature and risks involved in trading of GEM stocks.
Schedule 5 – RISK OF TRADING NASDAQ-AMEX SECURITIES AT THE STOCK EXCHANGE OF HONG KONG LIMITED
The securities traded under the Nasdaq-Amex Pilot Program (the “PP”) are aimed at sophisticated investors. You should consult YSHK and become familiarised with the PP before trading in the PP securities. You should be aware that the PP securities are not regulated as a primary or secondary listing on the Main Board or the Growth Enterprise market of The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited.
Schedule 6 – RISKS OF FUTURES AND OPTIONS TRADING
This brief statement does not disclose all of the risks and other significant aspects of trading in futures and options. In light of the risks, you should undertake such transactions only if you understand the nature of the contracts (and contractual relationships) into which you are entering and the extent of your exposure to risk.
Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public. You should carefully consider whether trading is appropriate for you in light of your experience, objectives, financial resources and other relevant circumstances.
1. Risks Of Trading Futures And Options
1.1 The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or options is substantial. In some circumstances, you may sustain losses in excess of your initial margin funds. Placing contingent orders, such as “stoploss” or “stop-limit” orders, will not necessarily avoid loss. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. You may be called upon at short notice to deposit additional margin funds. If the required funds are not provided within the prescribed time, your position may be liquidated. You will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account. You should therefore study and understand futures contracts and options before you trade and carefully consider whether such trading is suitable in light of your own financial position and investment objectives. If you trade options you should inform yourself of exercise and expiration procedures and your rights and obligations upon exercise or expiry.
2. Effect Of Leverage Or “Gearing”
2.1 Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk. The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract so that transactions are “leveraged” or “geared”. A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit; this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with YSHK to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.
3. Risk-Reducing Orders Or Strategies
3.1 The placing of certain orders (e.g. “stop-loss” orders, or “stop-limit” orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as “spread” and “straddle” positions may be as risky as taking simple “long” or “short” positions.
4. Variable Degree Of Risk
4.1 Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk. Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarise themselves with the type of option (i.e. put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks.
Warning to option holders
• Some options may only be exercised on an expiry day (European-Style Exercise) and other options may be exercised at any time before expiration (American-Style Exercise). Upon exercise, some options require delivery and receipt of the underlying securities, and that other options require a cash payment.
• An option is a wasting asset and there is a possibility that as an option holder you may suffer the loss of the total premium paid for the option. As an option holder, in order to realise a profit it will be necessary to either exercise the option or close the long option position in the market. Under some circumstances it may be difficult to trade the option due to lack of liquidity in the market. You acknowledge that YSHK has no obligation either to exercise a valuable option in the absence of your instruction, or to give to you prior notice of the expiration date of the option.
Warning to option writers
• As a writer of an option, you may be required to pay additional margin at any time. You acknowledge that as an option writer, unlike an option holder, you may be liable for unlimited losses based on the rise or fall of the price of the underlying securities and you gain are limited to the option premium.
• Additionally, writers of American-Style Call (Put) Options may be required at any time before expiry to deliver (or pay for) the underlying securities to the full value of the strike price multiplied by the number of underlying securities. You recognize that this obligation may be wholly disproportionate to the value of premium received at the time the options were written and may be required at short notice. You should calculate the extent to which the value of the options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs.
4.2 The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire. The exercise of an option results either in a cash settlement or in the purchaser acquiring or delivering the underlying interest. If the option is on a futures contract, the purchaser will acquire a futures position with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment which will consist of the option premium plus transaction costs. If you are contemplating purchasing deep-out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of such options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote.
4.3 Selling (“writing or granting”) an option generally entails considerably greater risk than purchasing options. Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount. The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavourably. The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller will be obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest. If the option is on a futures contract, the seller will acquire a position in a futures contract with associated liabilities for margin (see the section on Futures above). If the option is “covered” by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a futures contract or another option, the risk may be reduced. If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited.
4.4 Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of the premium. The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs. When the option is exercised or expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time.
ADDITIONAL RISKS COMMON TO FUTURES AND OPTIONS
5. Terms And Conditions Of Contracts
5.1 You should ask YSHK about the terms and conditions of the specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations (e.g. the circumstances under which you may become obliged to make or take delivery of the underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of options, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise). Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.
6. Suspension Or Restriction Of Trading And Pricing Relationships
6.1 Market conditions (e.g. illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets (e.g. the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or “circuit breakers”) may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions. If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.
6.2 Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the futures, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist. This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not. The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge “fair value”.
7. Deposited Cash And Property
7.1 You should familiarise yourself with the protections given to money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy. The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules. In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purposes of distribution in the event of a shortfall.
8. Commission And Other Charges
8.1 Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss. By commencing any trading activities with YSHK, you acknowledge that you have been so informed by YSHK.
9. Transactions In Other Jurisdictions
9.1 Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before you trade you should enquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask YSHK about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.
10. Currency Risks
10.1 The profit or loss in transaction in foreign currency-denominated contracts (whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.
11. Trading Facilities
11.1 Electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order-routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades. As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure. Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or participant firms. Such limits may vary; you should ask YSHK for details in this respect.
12. Electronic Trading
12.1 Trading on an electronic trading system may differ from trading on other electronic trading systems. If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software. The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.
13. Off–Exchange Transactions
13.1 In some jurisdictions, and only then in restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions. YSHK may be acting as your counterparty to the transaction. It may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a fair price or to assess the exposure to risk. For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks. Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime. Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarise yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.
14. Margin or Additional margin Requirements or Demands For Variation Adjustment
14.1 You agree to provide to and maintain with YSHK such margin together with such guarantees and other security in such form and amount and on such terms as YSHK may in its absolute discretion require from time to time. Such margin requirements established by YSHK may exceed any margin requirements prescribed by any Exchange or Clearing house or broker. YSHK may change margin requirement in its sole discretion and at any time without prior to the Client. If YSHK determines that additional margin is required, the Client agrees to deposit with YSHK such additional margin forthwith upon demand.
14.2 In respect of all futures contracts and/or option contracts entered into by YSHK on behalf of the Client, the client shall provide to YSHK such margin or additional margin or demands for variation adjustment as YSHK may in its absolute discretion require immediately upon demand. Such calls for margin or additional margin requirements or demands for variation adjustment by YSHK may exceed the margin requirements or variation adjustments prescribed by Futures Exchange or Clearing House and may be changed by YSHK with immediate effect without prior notice to the Client. YSHK is obliged to report to the Futures Exchange particulars of all Open Contracts in respect of which the Client has failed on two successive occasions to meet a demand for margin or additional margin or variation adjustments and YSHK may close out the Client’s Open Contracts in respect of which any demand for margin or additional margin variation adjustments has not been met.
Schedule 7 – RISK OF PROVIDING AN AUTHORITY TO HOLD MAIL OR TO DIRECT MAIL TO THIRD PARTIES
|If you provide YSHK with an authority to hold mail or to direct mail to third parties, it is important for you to promptly collect in person all contract notes and statements of your account and review them in detail to ensure that any anomalies or mistakes can be detected in a timely fashion.
Schedule 8 – RISKS OF CLIENT ASSETS RECEIVED OR HELD OUTSIDE HONG KONG
|Client assets received or held by YSHK outside Hong Kong are subject to the applicable laws and regulations of the relevant overseas jurisdiction which may be different from the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap.571) and the rules made thereunder. Consequently, such client assets may not enjoy the same protection as that conferred on client assets received or held in Hong Kong.
Schedule 9 – RISKS OF TRADING IN EXCHANGE TRADED DERIVATIVES PRODUCTS
This risk disclosure statement does not purport to disclose or discuss all of the risks, or other significant aspects, of conducting transactions or of the transactions conducted. Exchange traded derivatives products involve high risks and is not suitable for all types of investors. Prior to trading in any exchange traded derivatives products, you should consider the suitability of the transaction to your particular circumstances and financial position. You should also have a thorough understanding of the product as well as the terms and conditions of the product being offered and consult your brokers or other professional advisors where necessary. Yuanta Securities (Hong Kong) Company Limited owes no duty to exercise any judgment on your behalf as to the merits or suitability of any transactions, security or instruments.
1. DERIVATIVE WARRANTS
Derivative warrants are an instrument that gives an investor the right to “buy” or “sell” an underlying asset at a pre-set price prior to a specified expiry date. At expiry, settlement is usually made in cash rather than a purchase or sale of the underlying asset.
Derivative warrants can be issued over a range of assets, including stocks, stock indices, currencies, commodities, or a basket of securities. They are generally divided into two types: calls and puts. Holders of call warrants have the right, but not obligation, to purchase from the issuer a give amount of the underlying asset at a predetermined price (also known as the exercise price) within a certain time period. Conversely, holders of put warrants have the right, but not obligation, to sell to the issuer a given amount of the underlying asset at a predetermined price within a certain time period.
1.1 RISK OF TRADING DERTIVATIVE WARRANTS
(a) Issuer risk
Derivative warrant holders are unsecured creditors of the issuer and they have no preferential claim to any assets an issuer may hold. Therefore, investors are exposed to credit risk in respect to the issuer.
(b) Gearing risk
Although derivative warrants may cost a fraction of the price of the underlying assets, a derivative warrant may change in value more or less rapidly than the underlying assets. In the worst case the value of the derivative warrants falls to zero and holders may lose their entire purchase price.
(c) Limited life
Unlike stocks, derivative warrants have an expiry date and therefore a limited life. Unless the derivative warrants are in-the-money, they become worthless at expiration.
(d) Time decay
The value of derivative warrants will decrease over time. Therefore, derivative warrants should never be viewed as products that are bought and held as long term investments.
An increase in the volatility of the underlying asset should lead to a higher warrant price and a decrease in volatility lead to a lower derivative warrant price.
(f) Market forces
In addition to the basic factors that determine the theoretical price of a derivative warrant, derivative warrant prices are also affected by the demand for and supply of the derivative warrants. Supply and Demand forces maybe greatest when a derivative warrant issue is almost sold out and when there are further issues of an existing derivative warrant.
High turnover in a derivative warrant should not be regarded as an indication that its price will go up. The price of a derivative warrant is affected by many factors from market forces to technical matters such as the price of the underlying asset, the volatility of the price of the underlying asset, the time remaining to expiry, interest rates and the expected dividend on the underlying asset.
2. CALLABLE BULL/BEAR CONTRACTS
Callable Bull/Bear Contracts (“CBBC”) are a type of structured product that tracks the performance of an underlying asset without requiring investors to pay the full price required to own the actual asset. They are issued either as Bull or Bear contracts with a fixed expiry date, allowing investors to take bullish or bearish positions on the underlying asset. CBBC are issued with the condition that during their lifespan they will be called by the issuers when the price of the underlying asset reaches a level (known as the “Call Price”) specified in the listing document. If the Call Price is reached before expiry, the CBBC will expire early and the trading of that CBBC will be terminated immediately. The specified expiry date from the listing document will no longer be valid.
There are two categories of CBBC, namely Category N CBBC and Category R CBBC. A Category N CBBC refers to a CBBC where its Call Price is equal to its Strike Price, and the CBBC holder will not receive any cash payment once the price of the underlying asset reaches or goes beyond the Call Price. A Category R CBBC refers to a CBBC where its Call Price is different from its Strike Price, and the CBBC holder may receive a small amount of cash payment (called “Residual Value”) upon the occurrence of a Mandatory Call Event (“MCE”) but in the worst case, no residual value will be paid.
2.1 RISK OF TRADING CALLABLE BULL/BEAR CONTRACTS
(a) Mandatory call
A CBBC will be called by the issuer when the price of the underlying asset hits the Call Price and trading in that CBBC will expire early. Payoff for Category N CBBC will be zero when they expire early. When Category R CBBC expire early the holder may receive a small amount of Residual Value payment, but there may be no Residual Value payment in adverse situations. Once the CBBC is called, even though the underlying asset may bounce back in the right direction, the CBBC which has been called will not be revived and investors will not be able to profit from the bounce-back.
(b) Gearing effects
Since a CBBC is a leveraged product, the percentage change in the price of a CBBC is greater compared with that of the underlying asset. Investors may suffer higher losses in percentage terms if they expect the price of the underlying asset to move one way but it moves in the opposite direction.
(c) Limited life
A CBBC has a limited life, as denoted by the fixed expiry date. The life of a CBBC may be shorter if called before the fixed expiry date. The price of a CBBC fluctuates with the changes in the price of the underlying asset from time to time and may become worthless after expiry and in certain cases, even before the normal expiry if the CBBC has been called early.
(d) Movement with underlying asset
Although the price of a CBBC tends to follow closely the price of its underlying asset, but in some situations it may not. Prices of CBBC are affected by a number of factors, including its own demand and supply, funding costs and time to expiry. Moreover, the delta for a particular CBBC may not always be close to one, in particular when the price of the underlying asset is close to the Call Price.
Although CBBC have liquidity providers, there is no guarantee that investors will be able to buy/ sell CBBC at their target prices any time they wish.
(f) Funding costs
The issue price of a CBBC includes funding costs and issuers will specify the formula for calculating the funding costs of their CBBC at launch in the listing documents. Since the funding costs for each CBBC issue may be different as it includes the issuer’s financing/stock borrowing costs after adjustment for expected ordinary dividend of the stock plus the issuer’s profit margin, investors are advised to compare the funding costs of different issuers for CBBC with similar underlying assets and terms. When a CBBC is called, the CBBC holders (investors) will lose the funding cost for the full period since the funding cost is built into the CBBC price upfront at launch even though with the MCE, the actual period of funding for the CBBC turns out to be shorter.
(g) Trading of CBBC close to Call Price
When the underlying asset is trading close to the Call Price, the price of a CBBC may be more volatile with wider spreads and uncertain liquidity. CBBC may be called at any time and trading will terminate as a result.
(h) CBBC with overseas underlying assets
Investors trading CBBC with overseas underlying assets are exposed to an exchange rate risk as the price and cash settlement amount of the CBBC are converted from a foreign currency into Hong Kong dollars. Exchange rates between currencies are determined by forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange markets which are affected by various factors. Besides, CBBC issued on overseas underlying assets may be called outside the Exchange’s trading hours.
3. LISTED EQUITY LINKED INSTRUMENTS
Equity Linked Instruments (“ELI”) are structured products which can be listed on the Exchange under Chapter 15A of the Main Board Listing Rules. They are marketed to retail and institutional investors who want to earn a higher interest rate than the rate on an ordinary time deposit and accept the risk of repayment in the form of the underlying shares or losing some or all of their investment.
When an investor purchases an ELI, he/ she is indirectly writing an option on the underlying shares. If the market moves as the investor expected, he/ she earns a fixed return from his/ her investment which is derived mainly from the premium received on writing the option. If the market moves against the investor's view, he/she may lose some or all of his/ her investment or receive shares worth less than the initial investment.
ELI are traded scripless in Hong Kong dollars and odd lots are settled in cash. Investors should note that short selling of ELI is prohibited. To match their directional view on the underlying securities, investors may choose from three different types of ELI listed on the Stock Exchange: Bull, Bear and Range. Other types of ELI may be traded on the Exchange in future.
3.1 RISK OF TRADING LISTED EQUITY LINKED INSTRUMENTS
(a) Exposure to equity market
Investors are exposed to price movements in the underlying security and the stock market, the impact of dividends and corporate actions and counterparty risks. Investors must also be prepared to accept the risk of receiving the underlying shares or a payment less than their original investment.
(b) Possibilities of losing investment
Investors may lose part or all of their investment if the price of the underlying security moves against their investment view.
(c) Price adjustment
Investors should note that any dividend payment on the underlying security may affect its price and the payback of the ELI at expiry due to ex-dividend pricing. Investors should also note that issuers may make adjustments to the ELI due to corporate actions on the underlying security.
(d) Interest rates
While most ELI offer a yield that is potentially higher than the interest on fixed deposits and traditional bonds, the return on investment is limited to the potential yield of the ELI.
(e) Potential yield
Investors should consult their brokers on fees and charges related to the purchase and sale of ELI and payment/ delivery at expiry. The potential yields disseminated by the Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing Limited (“HKEx”) have not taken fees and charges into consideration.
4. EXCHANGE TRADED FUNDS WITH DERIVATIVE NATURE
Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are passively managed and open-ended funds. All listed ETFs on the HKEx securities market are authorized by the Securities and Futures Commission as collective investment schemes. They are designed to track the performance of their underlying benchmarks (e.g. an index, a commodity such as gold, etc) and offer investors an efficient way to obtain cost-effective exposure to a wide range of underlying market themes.
ETFs can be broadly grouped into two types: Physical ETFs (i.e. traditional or in-specie ETFs) and Synthetic ETFs. Many of physical ETFs directly buy all the assets needed to replicate the composition and weighting of their benchmark (e.g. constituents of a stock index). Some physical ETFs with underlying equity-based indices may also invest partially in futures and options contracts. Synthetic ETFs do not buy the assets in their benchmark. Instead, they typically invest in financial derivative instruments to replicate the benchmark’s performance.
4.1 RISK OF TRADING EXCHANGE TRADED FUNDS
(a) Market risk
ETFs are typically designed to track the performance of certain indices, market sectors, or groups of assets such as stocks, bonds, or commodities. ETF managers may use different strategies to achieve this goal, but in general they do not have the discretion to take defensive positions in declining markets. Investors must be prepared to bear the risk of loss and volatility associated with the underlying index/assets.
(b) Tracking errors Tracking errors refer to the disparity in performance between an ETF and its underlying index/ assets. Tracking errors can arise due to factors such as the impact of transaction fees and expenses incurred to the ETF, changes in composition of the underlying index/ assets, and the ETF manager’s replication strategy.
(c) Trading at discount or premium
An ETF may be traded at a discount or premium to its Net Asset Value. This price discrepancy is caused by supply and demand factors, and may be particularly likely to emerge during periods of high market volatility and uncertainty. This phenomenon may also be observed for ETFs tracking specific markets or sectors that are subject to direct investment restrictions.
(d) Foreign exchange risk
Investors trading ETFs with underlying assets not denominated in Hong Kong dollars are also exposed to exchange rate risk. Currency rate fluctuations can adversely affect the underlying asset value, also affecting the ETF price.
(e) Liquidity risk
Securities Market Makers (“SMMs”) are Exchange Participants that provide liquidity to facilitate trading in ETFs. Although most ETFs are supported by one or more SMMs, there is no assurance that active trading will be maintained. In the event that the SMMs default or cease to fulfill their role, investors may not be able to buy or sell the product.
(f) Counterparty risk involved in ETFs with different replication strategies
Where ETFs utilising a synthetic replication strategy use swaps or other derivative instruments to gain exposure to a benchmark, they are exposed to counterparty risk of the swap dealers or the derivative instruments’ issuers and may suffer losses if such dealers or issuers default or fail to honor their contractual commitments.
Even where collateral is obtained by an ETF, it is subject to the collateral provider fulfilling its obligations. There is a further risk that when the right against the collateral is exercised, the market value of the collateral could be substantially less than the amount secured resulting in significant loss to the ETF.
5. CONVERTIBLE BONDS
Convertible bonds have investment characteristics of both debt and equity securities. A convertible bond gives its holder the right to convert the bond into shares of the issuing corporation according to predetermined terms during a conversion period or at conversion dates. Convertible bonds have the characteristics of debt securities, such as interest payments and a definite date upon which the principal must be repaid. They also offer possible capital appreciation through the right to convert the bonds into shares at the holder’s option according to stipulated terms over certain periods. Due to their conversion feature, convertible bonds usually offer a slightly interest payments than corporate bonds.
5.1 RISK OF TRADING CONVERTIBLE BONDS
(a) Issuer risk
Issuer may fail to pay interest or principal to bond holders on time.
(b) Interest rate risk
The price of fixed rate bonds fluctuates according to changes in market interest rates. Prices for fixed rate bonds move inversely with changes in interest rates. In general, market interest rate movements have a larger impact on the price of bonds with a longer remaining period to maturity.
(c) Liquidity risk
Liquidity of some bonds in the secondary market may be low. Investors may find it hard to buy or sell such bonds and need to hold them to maturity.
(d) Foreign exchange risk
Exchange rate risk exists if the bond is denominated in foreign currency.
(e) Equity risk
If the bond is converted into shares of the issuing corporation, equity risk associated with thestock will be existed.
Schedule 10 – OVERSEAS MARKET RISK
|Transactions involving markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such market may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before trading, you should enquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask for details about the types of redress available in both Hong Kong and other relevant jurisdictions before starting to trade.
Schedule 11 – GENERIC RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OTC DERIVATIVE TRANSACTIONS
|OTC derivative transactions, like other financial transactions, involve a variety of significant risks. The specific risks presented by a particular OTC derivative transaction necessarily depend upon the terms of the transaction and your circumstances. In general, however, all OTC derivative transactions involve some combination of market risk, credit risk, funding risk and operational risk.
(a) Market risk is the risk that the value of a transaction will be adversely affected by fluctuations in the level or volatility of or correlation or relationship between one or more market prices, rates or indices or other market factors or by illiquidity in the market for the relevant transaction or in a related market.
(b) Credit risk is the risk that a counterparty will fail to perform its obligations to you when due.
(c) Funding risk is the risk that, as a result of mismatches or delays in the timing of cash flows due from or to your counterparties in OTC derivative transactions or related hedging, trading, collateral or other transactions, you or your counterparty will not have adequate cash available to fund current obligations.
(d) Operational risk is the risk of loss to you arising from inadequacies in or failures of your internal systems and controls for monitoring and quantifying the risks and contractual obligations associated with OTC derivative transactions, for recording and valuing OTC derivative and related transactions, or for detecting human error, systems failure or management failure.
There may be other significant risks that you should consider based on the terms of a specific transaction. Highly customised OTC derivative transactions in particular may increase liquidity risk and introduce other significant risk factors of a complex character. Highly leveraged transactions may experience substantial gains or losses in value as a result of relatively small changes in the value or level of an underlying or related market factor.
Because the price and other terms on which you may enter into or terminate an OTC derivative transaction are individually negotiated, these may not represent the best price or terms available to you from other sources.
In evaluating the risks and contractual obligations associated with a particular OTC derivative transaction, you should also consider that an OTC derivative transaction may be modified or terminated only by mutual consent of the original parties and subject to agreement on individually negotiated terms. Accordingly, it may not be possible for you to modify, terminate or offset your obligations or your exposure to the risks associated with a transaction prior to its scheduled termination date.
Similarly, while market makers and dealers generally quote prices or terms for entering into or terminating OTC derivative transactions and provide indicative or mid-market quotations with respect to outstanding OTC derivative transactions, they are generally not contractually obligated to do so. In addition, it may not be possible to obtain indicative or mid-market quotations for an OTC derivative transaction from a market maker or dealer that is not counterparty to the transaction. Consequently, it may also be difficult for you to establish an independent value for an outstanding OTC derivative transaction. You should not regard your counterparty’s provision of a valuation or indicative price at your request as an offer to enter into or terminate the relevant transaction at that value or price, unless the value or price is identified by the counterparty as firm or binding.
The above does not purport to disclose all of the risks and other material considerations associated with OTC derivative transactions. You should not construe this generic disclosure statement as business, legal, tax or accounting advice or as modifying applicable law. You should consult your own business, legal, tax and accounting advisers with respect to proposed OTC derivative transactions and you should refrain from entering into any OTC derivative transaction unless you have fully understood the terms and risks of the transaction, including the extent of your potential risk of loss.
Schedule 12 – RISK OF TRADING LISTED RENMINBI-DENOMINATED SECURITIES
|If you provide YSHK with an authority to hold mail or to direct mail to third parties, it is important for you to promptly collect in person all contract notes and statements of your account and review them in detail to ensure that any anomalies or mistakes can be detected in a timely fashion.The following risk disclosure statements may not disclose all the risks and information in relation to investing in Renminbi products. For example, selling restrictions may be applicable to certain investors in accordance with the restrictions as stipulated in the relevant prospectus of the Renminbi products. You must therefore read the relevant prospectus, circular or any other documents in respect of each Renminbi products and carefully consider all other risk factors set out therein before deciding whether to invest.
1. Exchange risks and Daily Conversion Limit, etc.
Renminbi (RMB) is currently not freely convertible and there may at any given time be limited availability of RMB outside Mainland China. There is conversion risk in RMB denominated securities, and daily or other limits may apply to conversion amounts. If converting to or from RMB in Hong Kong, you may have to allow sufficient time to avoid exceeding such limits. In addition, there is a liquidity risk associated with RMB denominated securities, especially if such securities do not have an active secondary market and their prices have large bid/offer spreads.
Investment in RMB denominated securities is subject to exchange rate risks. The value of the RMB against any other foreign currencies fluctuates and is affected by changes in Mainland China and international political and economic conditions and by many other factors. The value of RMB settlement amounts compared to other currencies will vary with the prevailing exchange rates in the market.
For RMB products which are not denominated in RMB or with underlying investments which are not RMB-denominated, such products will be subject to multiple currency conversion costs involved in making investments and liquidating investments, as well as the RMB exchange rate fluctuations and bid/offer spreads when assets are sold to meet redemption requests and other capital requirements (e.g. settling operating expenses).
2. Interest rate risks
For RMB products which are, or may invest in, RMB debt instruments, you should pay attention to the fact that such instruments may be susceptible to interest rate fluctuations, which may adversely affect the return and performance of the RMB products.
3. Limited availability of underlying investments denominated in RMB
For RMB products that do not have access to invest directly in Mainland China, their available choice of underlying investments denominated in RMB outside Mainland China may be limited. Such limitation may adversely affect the return and performance of the RMB products
4. Projected returns which are not guaranteed
If the RMB investment product is attached with a statement of illustrative return which is (partly) not guaranteed, you should pay particular attention to any disclosure relating to the return (or the part of the return, as the case may be) which is not guaranteed and the assumptions on which the illustrations are based, including, e.g., any future bonus or dividend declaration.
5. Long term commitment to investment products
For RMB products which involve a long period of investment, if you redeem your investment before the maturity date or during the lock-up period (if applicable), you may incur a significant loss of principal where the proceeds may be substantially lower than your invested amount. You may also suffer from early surrender / withdrawal fees and charges as well as the loss of returns (where applicable) as a result of redemption before the maturity date or during the lock-up period.
6. Credit risk of counterparties
You should pay particular attention to the credit risk of counterparties involved in the RMB products. To the extent that the RMB products may invest in RMB debt instruments not supported by any collateral, such products are fully exposed to the credit risk of the relevant counterparties. Where a RMB product may invest in derivative instruments, counterparty risk may also arise as the default by the derivative issuers may adversely affect the performance of the RMB product and result in substantial loss.
7. Liquidity Risk
RMB products may suffer significant losses in liquidating the underlying investments, especially if such investments do not have an active secondary market and their prices have large bid / offer spreads.
8. Possibility of not receiving RMB upon redemption
For RMB products with a significant portion of non-RMB denominated underlying investments, you should pay attention to the possibility of not receiving the full amount in RMB upon redemption. This may be the case if the issuer is not able to obtain sufficient amount of RMB in a timely manner due to the exchange controls and restrictions applicable to the currency.
Schedule 13 – INTERNET RISK
|Since YSHK does not control signal power, its reception or routing via internet, configuration of your equipment or reliability of its connection, we cannot be responsible for communication failures, distortions or delays when trading online (via internet). Trading currencies involves substantial risk that is not suitable for everyone. Although, trading online is convenient or efficient, it does not necessarily reduce risks associated with currency trading. You should recognize that foreign exchange trading spot prices may vary from institution to institution and from minute to minute which may arise, including without limitation, as a result of a time lag in data transmission, and that it may prove impossible to effect trades even at advertised prices. Thus you agree to accept that such prices as YSHK may offer from time to time are the best prices then available.
YSHK shall take all reasonably practicable steps to secure the transmission of information and communication between you and us via the internet. However, you acknowledge that complete security cannot be guaranteed and any Transaction over the Internet may be subject to interruption, transmission blackout, delayed transmission due to Internet traffic or incorrect data transmission given the open nature of the Internet and such mode of transmission and communication is used at your own risk. Your further acknowledge that there may be a time lag in transmission of information, instruction and communication via the internet.
Schedule 14 – Risks of Trading in Foreign Currency
| The profit or loss in transactions of foreign currency denominated products (whether they are traded in the investor’s own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the products to another currency.
The investor understands that the trading financial products/securities with underlying assets not denominated in Hong Kong dollars are exposed to exchange rate risk. Currency rate fluctuations can adversely affect the underlying asset value, also affecting the financial product/securities’ price..
Schedule 15 – Default Risks & Counterparty Risks
| Every investment products contains default risks and/or counterparty risks. Default risk could come from the issuer's failure to make payments as agreed. At time of market downturn, an issuer may default due to their inability to raise new debt to roll over or repay old ones. Credit ratings are the most common tools used for assessing bond default risk. A rating represents the opinion of the rating agency at a particular point of time and may change over time, due to either changes in the financial status of the issuers or changes in market conditions.
Counterparty risk refers to the failure of the trading party in fulfilling their financial contractual obligations. While ratings by credit agencies represented quality assurances, the investor should not only refer to the credit ratings of the product issuers, but also seek full understanding of the product structure and its exposure to the financial derivatives in order to avoid financial loss.
Schedule 16 – Risk Relating to Collective Investment Schemes
| Collective Investment Schemes may invest extensively (up to 100%) in financial derivative instruments, fixed income securities and/or structured products (including, but not limited to credit default swaps, sub-investment grade debt, mortgage-backed securities and other asset-backed securities) and be subject to various risks (including but not limited to counterparty risk, liquidity risk, credit risk, and market risk).
Collective Investment Schemes may use trading strategies that use financial derivative instruments which may be unsuccessful due to a number of reasons; including but not limited to volatile market conditions, imperfect correlation between the movements in securities on which derivatives are based, lack of liquidity within markets and counterparty default risk.
Schedule 17 – Specific Risk of Trading Derivative Warrants
| Time Decay Risk: All things being equal, the value of a derivative warrant will decay over time as it approaches its expiry date. Derivative warrants should therefore not be viewed as long term investments.
Volatility Risk: Prices of derivative warrants can increase or decrease in line with the implied volatility of underlying asset price. The investor should be aware of the underlying asset volatility.
Limited Life: Unlike stocks, derivative warrants have an expiry date and therefore a limited life. Unless the derivative warrants are in-the-money, they become worthless at expiration. Deeply out- of-the-money warrants are less sensitive to movements in the price of the underlying asset because such warrants are unlikely to become in-the-money on expiry.
Turnover: High turnover should not be regarded as an indication that a derivative warrant’s price will go up. The price of a derivative warrant is affected by a number of factors in addition to market forces, such as the price of the underlying assets and its volatility, the time remaining to expiry, interest rates and the expected dividend on the underlying assets.
Schedule 18 – Specific Risk of Trading Callable Bull/Bear Contracts (“CBBC”)
| Mandatory Call Risk: Customers trading CBBCs should be aware of their intraday “knockout” or mandatory call feature. A CBBC will cease trading when the underlying asset value equals the mandatory call price/level as stated in the listing documents. The investor will only be entitled to the residual value of the terminated CBBC as calculated by the product issuer in accordance with the listing documents. The investor should also note that the residual value can be zero.
Funding Costs: The issue price of a CBBC includes funding costs. Funding costs are gradually reduced over time as the CBBC moves towards expiry. The longer the duration of the CBBC, the higher the total funding costs. In the event that a CBBC is called, the investor will lose the funding costs for the entire lifespan of the CBBC. The formula for calculating the funding costs are stated in the listing documents.
Limited Life: A CBBC has a limited lifespan as denoted by the fixed expiry date. The life of a CBBC may be shorter if called before the fixed expiry date. The price of a CBBC fluctuates with the changes in the price of the underlying asset from time to time and may become worthless after expiry and in certain cases, even before the normal expiry if the CBBC has been called early.
Movement with Underlying Asset: The price changes of a CBBC tends to follow closely the price changes of its underlying asset, but in some situations it may not. Prices of CBBC are affected by a number of factors, including its own demand and supply, funding costs and time to expiry. The delta for a particular CBBC may not always be close to one, especially when the price of the underlying asset is close to the Call Price.
Trading of CBBC close to Call Price: When the underlying asset is trading close to the Call Price, the price of a CBBC may be more volatile with wider spreads and uncertain liquidity. CBBC may be called at any time and trading will terminate as a result. However, the trade inputted by the investor may still be executed and confirmed after the Mandatory Call Event (MCE) since there may be some time lapse between MCE and suspension of the CBBC trading. Any trades executed after the MCE will not be recognized and will be cancelled. Therefore, the investor should be aware of the risk and ought to apply special caution when the CBBC is trading close to the Call Price.
Overseas Underlying Assets: CBBC issued on overseas underlying assets may be called outside the Exchange’s trading hours.
Schedule 19 – Specific Risk of Trading Exchange Traded Funds (“ETFs”)
| Market Risk: ETFs are typically designed to track the performance of certain indices, market sectors, or groups of assets such as stocks, bonds, or commodities. ETF managers may use different strategies to achieve this goal, but in general they do not have the discretion to take defensive positions in declining markets. The investor must be prepared to bear the risk of loss and volatility associated with the underlying index/assets.
Tracking Errors: Tracking errors refer to the disparity in performance between an ETF and its underlying index/assets. Tracking errors can arise due to factors such as the impact of transaction fees and expenses incurred to the ETF, changes in composition of the underlying index/assets, and the ETF manager’s replication strategy. (The common replication strategies include full replication/representative sampling and synthetic replication.)
Trading at Discount or Premium: An ETF may be traded at a discount or premium to its Net Asset Value (NAV). This price discrepancy is caused by supply and demand factors, and may be particularly likely to emerge during periods of high market volatility and uncertainty. This phenomenon may also be observed for ETFs tracking specific markets or sectors that are subject to direct investment restrictions.
Liquidity risk: Securities Market Makers (SMMs) are Exchange Participants that provide liquidity to facilitate trading in ETFs. Although most ETFs are supported by one or more SMMs, there is no assurance that active trading will be maintained. In the event that the SMMs default or cease to fulfill their role, the investor may not be able to buy or sell the product.
Schedule 20 – Leveraged & Inverse (“L&I”) Products Key risks
| Investment Risk: Trading L&I products involves investment risk and are not intended for all investors. There is no guarantee of repaying the principal amount.
Volatility risk: Prices of L&I products may be more volatile than conventional exchange traded funds (ETFs) because of the use of leverage and rebalancing activities.
Unlike Conventional ETFs: L&I products are different from conventional ETFs. They do not share the same characteristics and risks as conventional ETFs.
Long-term Holding Risk: L&I products are not intended for holding longer than the rebalancing interval, typically one day. Daily rebalancing and the compounding effect will make the L&I product’s performance over a period longer than one day deviate in amount and possibly direction from the leveraged/inverse performance of the underlying index over the same period. The deviation becomes more pronounced in a volatile market. As a result of daily rebalancing, the underlying index’s volatility and the effects of compounding of each day’s return over time, it is possible that the leveraged product will lose money over time while the underlying index increases or is flat. Likewise, it is possible that the inverse product will lose money over time while the underlying index decreases or is flat.
Risk of Rebalancing Activities: There is no assurance that L&I products can rebalance their portfolios on a daily basis to achieve their investment objectives. Market disruption, regulatory restrictions or extreme market volatility may adversely affect the rebalancing activities.
Intraday Investment Risk: Leverage factor of L&I products may change during a trading day when the market moves but it will not be rebalanced until day end. The L&I product’s return during a trading day may be greater or less than the leveraged/opposite return of the underlying index.
Portfolio Turnover Risk: Daily rebalancing causes a higher levels of portfolio transaction when compared to conventional ETFs, and thus increases brokerage and other transaction costs.
Correlation Risk: Fees, expenses, transactions cost as well as costs of using financial derivatives may reduce the correlation between the performance of the L&I product and the leveraged/inverse performance of the underlying index on a daily basis.
Termination Risk: L&I products must be terminated when all the market makers resign. Termination of the L&I product should take place at about the same time when the resignation of the last market maker becomes effective.
Leverage Risk (for leveraged products only): The use of leverage will magnify both gains and losses of leveraged products resulting from changes in the underlying index or, where the underlying index is denominated in a currency other than the leveraged product's base currency, from fluctuations in exchange rates.
Unconventional Return Pattern (for inverse products only): Inverse products aim to deliver the opposite of the daily return of the underlying index. If the value of the underlying index increases for extended periods, or where the exchange rate of the underlying index denominated in a currency other than the inverse product's base currency rises for an extended period, inverse products can lose most or all of their value.
Inverse Products vs Short Selling (for inverse products only): Investing in inverse products is different from taking a short position. Because of rebalancing, the performance of inverse products may deviate from a short position in particular in a volatile market with frequent directional swings.
Schedule 21 – Risks Associated with Rights Issues
| A rights issue is a one-time offering of shares in a company to existing shareholders, allowing them an opportunity to maintain their proportional ownership without being diluted by buying additional new shares at a discounted price on a stated future date.
Until the date at which the new shares can be purchased, the investor may trade the rights to the market the same way ordinary shares are traded. If the investor does not intend to exercise the rights, the rights issue can be sold on the open market.
Once exercised, the rights cannot be used again. If the investor does not exercise their rights within the specified period, the rights will expire.
While shares are offered at a discount during rights issues, the investor should not assume that the discounted price is necessarily a bargain. An informed decision should be made by looking at the rationale behind the fund raising exercise.
A company may use a rights issue to cover debt, especially when they are unable to borrow money from other sources. The investor should be concerned with whether or not the management are addressing any underlying problems.
If the investor decides not to take up the rights the investor’s overall shareholding in the company will be diluted as a result of the increased number of shares in issue.
If the investor does not participate in the rights issue within the specified time-frame, the nil-paid rights will lapse. The company will sell these entitlements and distribute any net proceeds after deduction of the offer price and costs. The amount of lapsed proceeds, if any, will not be known until the offer has closed. Lapsed proceeds are not guaranteed.
Investments and income arising from rights issue can fall in value and the investor may get back less than originally invested.
Schedule 22 – Risk of Trading Equity-linked Instrument (“ELI”)
| Where the investor instructs the Company to use the Account for trading ELI, the investor acknowledges that ELIs are not principal protected and the investor may suffer a loss if the price(s) of the reference asset(s) of an ELI go against the investor’s view.
In extreme cases, the investor could lose the entire investment. The risk of loss may be substantial in certain circumstances and the investor should not deal in ELIs unless the investor understands the nature of the transactions entered into and the extent of the investor’s exposure to risk. The investor should carefully consider whether the transactions are suitable in the light of the investor’s circumstances and financial position.
The investor understands that while most ELIs generally generate higher interest than ordinary time deposits or traditional bonds, the potential gain on an ELI may be capped at a predetermined level specified by the issuer.
During the investment period, the investor has no rights in the reference asset(s). Changes in the market prices of such reference asset(s) may not lead to a corresponding change in the market value and/or potential payout of the ELI.
The investor is fully aware that an investment in ELI exposes the investor to equity risk. The investor is exposed to price movements in the underlying security and the stock market, the impact of dividends and corporate actions and counterparty risks. The investor accepts the legal obligation to take the underlying instrument at the pre-agreed conversion price instead of receiving the principal of the ELI, if the price of the underlying instrument falls below the conversion price. The investor will therefore receive an instrument that has fallen in value to the extent that it is less than the original investment, and might even lose the entire principal or deposit if the underlying instrument become worthless. ELIs are not secured on any assets or collateral.
The investor is fully aware that by investing in an ELI, the investor relies on the credit- worthiness of the issuer. In case of default or insolvency of the issuer, the investor will have to rely on the distributor to take action on the investor’s behalf to claim as an unsecured creditor of the issuer regardless of the performance of the reference asset(s).
Issuers may provide limited market making arrangement for their ELIs. However, if the investor tries to terminate an ELI before maturity under the market making arrangement provided by the issuer, the investor may receive an amount which is substantially less than the investor’s original investment amount. ELI may be “non transferable” and it may be impossible for the investor to close out or liquidate them. Issuer of an ELI may also play different roles, such as the arranger, the market agent and the calculation agent of the ELI. Conflicts of interest may arise from the different roles played by the issuer, its subsidiaries and affiliates in connection with the ELI.
The investor should note that any dividend payment on the underlying security may affect its price and the payback of the ELI at expiry due to ex-dividend pricing. The investor should also note that issuers may make adjustments to the ELI due to corporate actions on the underlying security.
Potential yield: Investors should consult their brokers on fees and charges related to the purchase and sale of ELI and payment / delivery at expiry. The potential yields disseminated by HKEx have not taken fees and charges into consideration.
Schedule 23 – Specific Risks involved in Futures-based ETFs
| Risk of Rolling Futures Contracts: Futures contracts are binding agreements that are made through futures exchanges to buy or sell the underlying assets at a specified time in the future. “Rollover” occurs when an existing futures contract is about to expire and is replaced with another futures contract representing the same underlying but with a later expiration date. When rolling futures contracts forward (i.e. selling near-term futures contracts and then buying longer-term futures contracts) in a situation where the prices of the longer-term futures contract are higher than that of the expiring current-month futures contract, a loss from rolling (i.e. a negative roll yield) may occur. Under such circumstances, the proceeds from selling the near-term futures contracts will not be sufficient to purchase the same number of futures contracts with a later expiration date which has a higher price. This may adversely affect the NAV of the futures-based ETF.
Risk of Statutory Restrictions on number of Futures Contracts being held: There is a statutory position limit restricting the holding of futures contracts traded on the recognised exchange company to no more than a specific number of such futures contracts. If the holding of such futures contracts of a futures-based ETF grows to the limit, this may prevent the creation of units of the ETF due to the inability to acquire further futures contracts. This may lead to differences between the trading price and the NAV of the ETF units listed on the exchange.
Schedule 24 – Specific Risks of Unit Trusts and Mutual Funds (“Funds”)
| The price of units/shares of a unit trust or mutual fund would fluctuate and may even become valueless. Past performance is not an indication of future performance.
Different investment Funds carry different risks. It is crucial to understand the specific terms and risks mentioned in the relevant offering documents (such as Prospectus, Product Key Fact and Fact Sheet) before investing. Key risks include but are not limited to:
Credit Risk: This risk usually applies to all fixed income (bonds) and money market instruments. Bonds are subject to the risk of the issuer defaulting on its obligations, i.e. An Issuer fails to make principal and interest payments when due. Credit ratings assigned by credit rating agencies do not guarantee the creditworthiness of the Issuer.
Liquidity Risk: This risk exists when a particular instrument of a Fund is difficult to purchase or sell. Securities (including bonds, etc.) not listed or rated may take longer or may even be impossible to dispose of in the market resulting in a higher liquidity risk. With these risks, investors may incur significant costs or losses.
Interest Rate Risk: If the product invested in bonds, it is more susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates and generally prices of bonds will fall when interest rates rise. The price of Funds investing in bonds may fall.
Market Risk: The value of investments may fluctuate due to changing political, legal and, economic conditions and changes in interest rates. This is common to all markets and asset classes. The investor’s return may be substantially less than the initial investment.
In addition to the risks listed above, fund investing in high-yield bonds are subject to risks such as:
Higher Credit Risk: Since high-yield bonds are typically rated below investment grade or are unrated and as such are often subject to a higher risk of issuer default.
Vulnerability to Economic Cycles: During economic downturns high-yield bonds typically fall more in value than investment grade bonds as investors become more risk averse and default risk rises.
Capital Growth Risk: Dividend payout Funds, especially some high-yield bond Funds may have fees and/ or dividends paid out of capital. As a result, the capital that the Fund has available for investment in the future and capital growth may be reduced.
Dividend Distributions Risk: Dividend payout Funds, especially some high-yield bond Funds may not distribute dividends, but instead reinvest the dividends into the Fund or alternatively, the investment manager may have discretion on whether or not to make any distribution out of income and/ or capital of the Fund. Also, a high distribution yield does not imply a positive or high return on the total investment.
Other Key Risks: Other key risks that may relate to the Funds investing in bonds, especially in high-yield bonds including concentration of investments in particular types of specialized debt or a specific geographical region or sovereign securities.
Risk of Trading Funds Requiring Derivative Knowledge (FRDK):
FRDK may use financial derivatives instruments for investment purposes, which may involve embedded leverage. The use of financial derivatives instruments may expose the investor to additional risks including but not limited to volatility risk and counterparty risk. Fund manager(s) may invest up to 100% of total Funds' net assets in structured products, derivatives and non- investment grade debt securities. During adverse market conditions, the investor may suffer significant financial losses.
Schedule 25 – Specific Risks of Bonds
| Bonds remain 100% principal protected upon maturity subject to the credit risk of the Issuer and/or the Guarantor (if applicable).
Bonds are not an alternative to ordinary savings or time deposits.
The price of bonds may fluctuate during its tenor and may even become valueless.
Key Product Risks
It is crucial to understand the specific risks mentioned in the relevant offering documents (if applicable) before investing. Key risks include, but are not limited to, the ones we have listed below:
Credit Risk: The investor assumes the credit risk of the Issuer and the Guarantor (if applicable). Any changes to the credit rating of them will affect the price and value of the bonds. Bonds are subject to the risk of the Issuer defaulting on its obligations, i.e. an Issuer fails to make principal and interest payments when due. In the worst case scenario of a bankruptcy of the Issuer/Guarantor, the investor could risk losing the value of the entire investment. Credit ratings assigned by credit rating agencies do not guarantee the creditworthiness of the issuer.
Liquidity Risk: The bond may have limited liquidity and may not be actively traded and/or quoted by brokers in the market. As such:
(i) The value of bond and/or indicative bid/offer price will depend on market liquidity and conditions which may not be available at all times;
(ii) It may take a longer time or it may be impossible to sell the bond at prevailing market conditions; and
(iii) The executable sale price may differ unfavourably by large amounts from the indicative bid price quoted.
Interest Rate Risk: Bonds are more susceptible to fluctuations in interest rates and generally prices of bonds will fall when interest rates rise.
Market Risk: The value of investments may fluctuate due to changing political, legal and, economic conditions and changes in interest rates. This is common to all markets and asset classes. Investor’s return may be substantially less than the initial investment.
In addition to the risks listed above, high-yield bonds are subject to additional risks such as:
Higher Credit Risk: Since high-yield bonds are typically rated below investment grade or are unrated, they are often subject to a higher risk of issuer default.
Vulnerability to Economic Cycles: During economic downturns high-yield bonds typically fall more in value than investment grade bonds as (i) investors become more risk averse and (ii) default risk rises.
It is important to note that certain bonds may contain special features and risks that warrant special attention. These include:
Perpetual Bonds: Perpetual debentures do not have a maturity date, and the coupon payments pay-out depends on the viability of the issuer in the very long term, it may be deferred or even suspended subject to the terms and conditions of the issue. Furthermore perpetual debentures are often callable and/or subordinated, and bear re-investment risk and/or subordinated bond risk, detailed below.
Re-investment Risk of Callable Bond: If the bond is callable in which the issuer may redeem the bond before maturity, it is subject to re-investment risk. The yield received when re-investing the proceeds may be less favourable.
Subordinated Bonds: Holders of subordinated debentures will bear higher risks than holders of senior debentures of the issuer due to a lower priority of claim in event of the Issuer’s liquidation. Subordinated debentures are unsecured and have lesser priority than that of an additional debt claim of the same asset. They usually have a lower credit rating than senior bonds. The investor’s specific attention is drawn to the credit information of this product, including the respective credit rating of the Issuer, the debenture and/or the Guarantor, as the case may be.
Bonds with Variable Coupon/Coupon Deferral features: If the bonds contain variable and/or deferral of interest payment terms, then the investor would face uncertainty over the amount and time of the interest payments to be received.
Bonds with Extendable Maturity Date: If the bonds contain extendable maturity date terms, then the investor would not have a definite schedule of principal repayment.
Convertible or Exchangeable Bonds: Convertible or Exchangeable bonds are convertible or exchangeable in nature and the investor is subject to both equity and bond investment risk. They may additionally have a contingent write-down or loss absorption feature, meaning the bond may be written-off fully or partially or converted to common stock on the occurrence of a trigger event.
Schedule 26 – Risk of Trading Exchange Traded Notes (ETNs)
| ETN is a type of unsecured, unsubordinated debt security issued by an underwriting bank, designed to provide investors access to the returns of various market benchmarks. The returns of ETNs are usually linked to the performance of a market benchmark or strategy, minus applicable fees. Similar to other debt securities, ETNs have a maturity date and are backed only by the credit of the issuer.
The investor can buy and sell the ETNs on the exchange or receive a cash payment at the scheduled maturity or may early redeem the ETNs directly with the issuer based on the performance of the underlying index less applicable fees, with redemption restrictions, such as the minimum number of ETNs for early redemption, may apply.
There is no guarantee that the investor will at maturity or upon an earlier repurchase, receive the initial investment back or any return on that investment. Significant adverse monthly performances for the investor's ETNs may not be offset by any beneficial monthly performances.
The issuer of ETNs may have the right to redeem the ETNs at the repurchase value at any time.
If at any time the repurchase value of the ETNs is zero, the investor's investment will become worthless.
ETNs may not be liquid and there is no guarantee that the investor will be able to liquidate the investor’s position whenever the investor wishes.
Although both Exchange Traded Funds and ETNs are linked to the return of a benchmark index, ETNs as debt securities do not actually own any assets they are tracking. Instead, the ETN represents a promise from the issuer to pay investors the theoretical allocation of the return reflected in the benchmark index. It provides limited portfolio diversification with concentrated exposure to a specific index and the index components. In the event that the ETN issuer defaults, the potential maximum loss could be 100% of the investment amount and no return may be received.
The value of the ETN may drop despite no change in the underlying index, instead the drop may be due to a downgrade in the issuer's credit rating. Therefore, by buying ETNs, the investor gets direct exposure to the credit risk of the issuer and would only have an unsecured bankruptcy claim if the issuer declares bankruptcy.
The principal amount is subject to the periodic application of investor fee or any applicable fees that can adversely affect returns.
The investor may have leveraged exposure to the underlying index, depending on the product feature. The value of ETNs can change rapidly according to the gearing ratio relative to the underlying assets. The investor should be aware that the value of an ETN may fall to zero resulting in a total loss of the initial investment.